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希尔顿娱乐登录网址:房屋装修:揭开家装“隐蔽工程”的隐秘

来源:腾讯房产   2018-04-09 15:48:37   字号: A- A+

暴雪线上娱乐平台:Thetroubled-plaguedSamsungGalaxyNote7,nowwithdrawnfromsales,usedtobeoneoftheSouthKoreangroup'smostsought-aftersmartphonemodels.[Photo/Agencies]China'scellphoneshipmentsincreasedto560millionslastyear,up8percentyear-on-year,accordingtodatafromtheChinaAcademyofInformationandCommunicationsTechnology.Thedatafromtheacademy,affiliatedtotheMinistryofIndustryandInformationTechnology,alsoshowChineseconsumersarelikelytoreplace400millionto500millioncellphonesayear,addingtotheexistingheapofabout1billiondiscardedcellphones.Instarkcontrast,therecyclingrateofcellphonesislessthan2percent.Abluebookonelectronicsconsumption,issuedbyShanghai'sHorizonResearchConsultancyGroupin2015,says65.4percentofconsumerschoosetodiscard,butnotrecycle,theiroldelectronicdevices.Ifdigitalwasteisnotrecycledorappropriatelydisposedof,itcoulddamagetheenvironment.Evenduringthemanufacturingprocessofsmartphones,somevolatilematerialslikelead,cadmium,mercuryandothermetals,ifnottreatedproperly,couldharmtheecosystemandhumanhealththroughsoilandwatercontamination.Andtheplasticcasesofdigitaldevicesreleasetoxic,evencarcinogenic,fumeswhentheyareburned.However,discardedelectronicdevices,includingcellphones,canbeturnedintousefulitems.Recently,theTokyoOrganisingCommitteeoftheOlympicandParalympicGamesannouncedaplantorecyclediscardedelectronicdevices,includingcellphones,andextractthemetalsfromthemtomakemedalsforthe2020Olympics.Somecellphonecomponentshavevaluablemetalsthatarecostlierthanevengoldandsilverore.TheAppleEnvironmentalResponsibilityReport2016saidinfiscalyear2015,Applegeneratedapproximately13.1millionpoundsofwaste,anddivertedover22.5millionpoundsofmaterialsfromlandfillthroughrecyclingandcomposting.However,thecostofrecyclingcellphonesishigh,notonlyintermsofmoneybutalsootherfactors.Themostimportantfactorispersonalprivacyandinformationsecurity.AccordingtotheChinaAcademyofInformationandCommunicationsTechnology,inJanuarythisyearthedomesticshipmentofsmartphonesreached45.03million,accountingfor96percentofthetotalshipmentofcellphones.Smartphonesarepopularnotjustbecausepeopleusethemtocallorreceivecallsandsendorreceivemessages,butalsobecausetheyneedthemtokeepintouchwiththeircontactsonWeChat,useAlipay,conductcellbankingoperationsandbrowsetheinternet.Andsinceusershavetoinputalotofpersonalinformationintothecellphonestocarryouttheseoperations,theyarereluctanttohavethemrecycledastheyfeartheirpersonalinformationcouldbeleakedandmisusedbyunscrupulouspeople.Thesecondfactorthatmakescellphonerecyclingdifficultisthelackofenoughandregularrecyclingchannels.ForiPhone,iPadandiMacusers,forexample,theonlyavailablechannelforrecyclingisApplestores.Theotherfactoristhatthemoneyusersgetinexchangeforhandingovertheircellphonestoregisteredrecyclingagentsisnotenoughtooffsettheriskoftheirpersonalinformationbeingmisused.Somostusersprefertokeepthediscardedsmartphonesathome.Besides,regularrecyclingofcellphonesmostlyinvolvesdismantlingthedevicesandextractingfromthemmetalsandparts,whosevaluemaynotbeworththecostofrecycling.Thisimbalanceintherecyclingmarketisperhapsthegreatestreasonwhyahugepercentageofthediscardedcellphonesisnorecycled.Onlywhenthefactorsareaddressedcantherecyclingofthecellphonesbeeffectivelyimplemented.TheauthorisawriterwithChinaDaily.zhangyuchen@chinadaily.com.cn

所谓“隐蔽工程”,就是在装修后被隐蔽起来,表面上无法看到的施工项目。根据装修工序,这些“隐蔽工程”都会被后一道工序所覆盖,所以很难检查其材料是否符合规格,施工是否规范。近几年来,由于家庭装饰工程在设计与施工中,设计师对结构安全及防火方面考虑不周,发生了许多质量问题。下面我们将向您介绍其中主要的几个方面,以及预防的办法:

1、因顶棚整体或局部塌落,使吊顶变成“掉顶”。这主要是因为吊顶与楼板以及龙骨与饰面板结合不好,或承重过大所造成的。按照规定,吊顶龙骨不得扭曲、变形,安装好的龙骨应该牢固、可靠,四周水平偏差不得超过5毫米,超过3公斤重的吊灯或吊扇都不能悬挂在吊顶龙骨上,而应该另设吊钩。如果吊顶使用石膏板做饰面板,其厚度应该在9毫米左右。

2、阳台封装固定不牢造成塌落。由于目前的房屋设计中,阳台上没有预留封装材料的“落脚点”,因此给阳台封装造成一定难度。在封装阳台时,门窗必须横平竖直、高低一致,外观无变形、开焊、断裂,框与墙体之间的缝隙应饱满、密实。

3、管道渗漏造成顶棚损坏。家庭居室中除了厨房、卫生间中的上下水管道之外,每个房间的暖气管其实更容易出现问题。由于管道安装不易检查,因此所有管道施工完毕后,一定要经过注水、加压检查,没有跑、冒、滴、漏才算过关。

4、暗埋线路暗埋险情。由于目前许多居室都采用暗埋线路,因此户主不易对施工质量进行检查。按规定,暗埋线路不能直接埋入抹灰层,而要在电线外面套管。套管中的电线不能有扭曲、接头。另外,在线路安装时,一定要严格遵守“火线进开关,零线进灯头左零右火,接地在上”的规定。施工完毕后,除了要通电检查外,施工队还要给户主提供一份详尽的电路配置图。

5、涂漆前基底清理不净,造成涂料起皮、脱落。在对墙壁进行涂饰之前,一定要将原有墙皮铲除干净,更不能留下油污。墙面上涂的腻子要与墙壁结合密实、牢固、不起皮、不粉化、无裂纹。


编辑:陈蔚

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